Our highly skilled surgeons and staff have helped over 1,500 women in need of cervical procedures that include, Colposcopy, LEEP, Cone Biopsies and more. Our dedicated and compassionate staff understands the stress associated with being diagnosed with abnormal cells and are available 24/7 for any questions or concerns.
When a PAP smear results show abnormal changes in the cells of your cervix your doctor will start with cervical procedures to give you more information about what is going on.
A colposcopy is a cervical procedure that allows a physician to examine a woman’s cervix and vagina using a special microscope called a colposcope. A colposcopy might be used to further assess problems such as genital warts on the cervix, cervicitis (an inflamed cervix), or benign growth such as polyps, pain, bleeding. During a colposcopy, our specialists may see abnormal areas. A biopsy of these areas on the cervix may be done. During a biopsy, a small piece of abnormal tissue is removed from the cervix. Cells also may be taken from the canal of the cervix. Dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are terms that describe the actual precancerous changes that occur in the cervix. These changes are due to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Dysplasia and CIN are graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild dysplasia (CIN 1) usually goes away on its own. Moderate (CIN 2) and severe (CIN 3) dysplasia indicate more serious changes.
Cryotherapy is a technique that freezes and sheds abnormal tissue. It can be used to treat mild to moderate cervical dysplasia. Cryotherapy is an effective method for destroying abnormal cervical tissue; studies show that it can destroy all of the abnormal tissue in 77% to 96% of cases.
A cone biopsy is an extensive form of a cervical biopsy. This cervical procedure is called a cone biopsy because a cone-shaped wedge of tissue is removed from the cervix and examined under a microscope. A cone biopsy removes abnormal tissue that is high in the cervical canal. A small amount of normal tissue around the cone-shaped wedge of abnormal tissue is also removed from the cervix so that a margin free of abnormal cells is left in the cervix.
Cervical cerclage is the placement of stitches in the cervix to hold it closed. In select cases, this cervical procedure is used to keep a weak cervix (incompetent cervix) from opening early. When a cervix opens early, it may cause preterm labor and delivery. The best time for the cervical procedure is during the third month (12-14 weeks) of pregnancy. However, some women may need a cerclage placed later in pregnancy; this is known as an emergent cerclage and is necessary after changes such as opening or shortening of the cervix have already begun. If an emergent cerclage is required, future pregnancies will probably also require a cervical cerclage.
After the cerclage has been placed, you will be observed for at least several hours (sometimes overnight) to ensure that you do not go into premature labor. You will then be allowed to return home, but will be instructed to remain in bed or avoid physical activity for two to three days, or up to two weeks. We will continue to monitor you and your pregnancy closely to monitor any preterm labor signs and your cervix.
The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal tissue. A LEEP can cut away abnormal cervical tissue and remove abnormal tissue high in the cervical canal. The physician uses a colposcope to identify the abnormal areas of the cervix. Numbing medication is injected into the cervix with a needle. When the cervix is anesthetized, a small segment at its end is removed with a hot wire shaped in a loop. This wire carries electrical energy to cauterize tissue and reduce bleeding as it passes through. Medication is applied to the cervix to stop the bleeding and promote healing.
Cervical cryosurgery is a cervical procedure involving the use of extreme cold to freeze areas of the cervix. This cervical procedure is done to destroy and remove abnormal cells of the cervix, particularly precancerous cells and it typically for smaller numbers of irregular cells. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold it open and the cryosurgery probe is inserted into the vagina. Nitrous oxide makes the tip extremely cold. The tip is touched to abnormal areas on the cervix. It is held there for a few minutes; slight cramping may be experienced. The tip is removed, which allows the tissue to return to its normal temperature over the course of 3-5 minutes. This freezing and thawing cycle may be repeated several times for each abnormal area on the cervix. Recovery time is approximately 10 to 15 minutes.
Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer among women worldwide. For women who are of childbearing age and develop cervical cancer, traditional surgical options involved a total hysterectomy. However, a cervical procedures such as a trachelectomy, or cervixectomy, are considered to be the optimal treatment for women of this age group with a desire to preserve fertility. It is performed on women with early cancer of the cervix (on a tumor no larger than 2-3 centimeters). In this surgery, the cervix and the upper part of the vagina are removed but the rest of the uterus is left in place. A lymphadenectomy, or removal of the lymph nodes, in the pelvic area is also performed (usually by keyhole laparoscopic surgery) to see if cancer has spread.
The cervix is a cylinder-shaped neck of tissue that connects the vagina and uterus. Located at the lowermost portion of the uterus, the cervix is composed primarily of fibromuscular tissue. It is typically 1 inch long.
There are two main portions of the cervix:
Most cervical cancer is caused by infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Regular Pap tests can prevent cervical cancer in most women.
Early opening, or dilation, of the cervix during pregnancy can lead to premature delivery. Previous cervical procedures are often responsible.
Inflammation of the cervix, usually caused by infection. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes are some of the sexually transmitted infections that can cause cervicitis.
Abnormal cells in the cervix can become cervical cancer. Cervical dysplasia is frequently discovered on Pap test. Also called Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
Small growths on the part of the cervix where it connects to the vagina. Polyps are painless and usually harmless, but they can cause vaginal bleeding.
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE (PID)
Infection of the cervix, known as cervicitis, may spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory disease can damage a woman’s reproductive organs and make it more difficult for her to become pregnant.
HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) INFECTION
Human papillomaviruses are a group of viruses, including certain types that cause cervical cancer and also dangerous types of the virus cause genital and cervical warts. Many types of HPV can be prevented with the Gardasil vaccine.
Some of the symptoms that indicate that you need to consult an OB/GYN specialist immediately are
Our all-female OB/GYN physicians and surgeons are highly skilled and experienced specialists that can address any type of OBGYN issues and concerns.
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